ANNEXED C
Digitalization of data data conversion to binary
The computers use the binary system for the representation of information, which admits only values of 0 and 1.
In order to turn information to this system digitalization resorts to the called technique that consists of transforming any information into a chain of zeros and.
The information can be in different formats:
A number
A letter
A computer character that is neither letter nor number as the sign "? "
A photo
A drawing in paper
Musical tonada
A x-ray
A radar signal
A signal of sounding
A radio signal
A signal of Television
A Computed Tomografía
Case 1: A number
If the information is numerical, is enough with turning the number to base 2 (binary).
Let us remember that the common numbers are expressed in base 10, nomenclature that means that:
1234 in base 10 mean that it is made up of the sum of:
4 xs 10 0
3 xs 10 1
2 xs 10 2
1 x 10 3
1001 in base 2 means that it is made up of the sum of:
1 x 2 0 = 1
0 x 2 1 = 0
0 2 xs 2 = 0
1 3 x 2 = 8
In other words, 1001 in base 2 is equal to 9 in base 10
Everything I number expressed in base 2 has its equivalent one in base 10 vice versa and.
The complete algorithm to turn a binary number into decimal of finds in Annexed the D
Caso2: A letter
Codes for computer exist vice versa that transform the letters into numbers and
One of but known is the code ASCII, that consists of 255 characters corresponding to all the numbers, the letters and the common characters of computer. Any letter transforms into a number using this code, and I number resultants are digitized using the procedure I decipher in the previous step.
Case 3: A character that is neither number nor letter
It is worth here the statement in the previous point
Case 4: A Photo
Called devices Scaners exist that digitize photos. Its operation consists, in essence, dividing the photo in thousands of tiny points. Let us remember that a photography consists of by himself of a assembly of very near points between if that give the appearance to the eye of being a unit. To each point it is assigned to him I number, corresponding to a scale of colors (trowel of colors) predefined. We have then to the photo turned into a series or chain of numbers, with which one operates with the procedure I decipher in case 1.
The usual trowels have 16 colors, 256 colors and 16 million colors. As we used but colors, it increases the size of the resulting chain. This chain is recorded in a computer file and it works with the same one in standard form.
Case 5: A drawing in paper
Scaners also makes possible To digitize drawings, reason why it is worth the saying in the previous point
Case 6: Musical tonada
The digital recorders of sounds divide to the sonorous fragment wave very small inaudibles for the human ear (is divided melodía in fractions of second) and a standard number according to some effective one is assigned to them. Norm MIDI is most popular at the moment. This way it is managed to have a chain of numbers, to which is dealt it with the same procedure I decipher in the step the 4, digital reproducers, they leave from this chain and they reproduce the equivalent sound of each number stored in her
Case 7: A x-ray
The x-ray does not stop being a special type of photographic board, reason why it receives the same processing that a common photo. It see case 4
Cases 8 - 12: Signal of radar, sonar, radio etc.
The bounce of the emitted wave is caught by devices ad - sickle. A processing similar to a sonorous wave occurs him. It see case 6
Aim of the Annexed C
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